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The Light is Green




Executive Summary

November 10, 2009

Cool Copper and Roof & Distribution © logo
Updated: 09/11/10 19:33

Thank you for your interest

We've attempted to touch on few of the highlights and the many advantages inherent in the Solar & Thermal business plan.  This information has been condensed over time and represents the ideal characteristics of S&T.


Markets Served

S&T will serve the market that consists of commercial electricity users that occupy low aspect ratio buildings, i.e. warehouses, distribution centers, high and low bay manufacturing spaces, industrial condominiums, strip malls, big-box stores, etc.  We will generally avoid windowed high-rise buildings as the ratio of roof to building area means we won't be able to provide a significant fraction of the building's energy using solar power.


The primary difference between S&T and other solar implementations both concentrating (CSP, CPV) and flat (PV) systems is the finished cost.  Estimates of materials and labor to produce a working installed system put our cost to produce at less than $2/Watt in the early states of limited production.  Automation and experience will drive that cost lower.

A major factor that separates the S&T from the CSP competition is the 100% fail-safe aspect of the 'boiler' aka the solar panels.  Since we use a relatively low peak temperature, in the event of fluid stoppage the panels will simply reach a stagnation temperature that is insufficient to decompose the working fluid; no damage will result.  The competition has multiple catastrophic failure modes.

Marketplace Need

Our customers use electricity.  Consumers consider electricity to be no more than a bottom line expense.  S&T can generate power with a levelized cost of energy below what many consumers are currently paying.  S&T gives consumers the ability to lock in their electric rate for the life of the equipment.  Electricity generated by S&T will be significantly less expensive than the price they will be paying in the future.

S&T customers will be able to offset their monthly electric bill into a seasonal income or even a continuous profit center.  Warehouses and distribution centers that cover their rooftops will reduce or eliminate HVAC demands, It has been demonstrated that facilities can meet their lighting & refrigeration needs.  Surplus power will be net-metered back to the local utility.

The simple payback can be determined based on two figures;  The local cost of electricity from the utility, and the projected rate from the S&T unit which is calculable from the estimated lifetime of the system.  We use 20 years simply to maintain similarity to the PV industry.  When we compare to equivalent sized flat panel PV installations which allows us to neglect the factors of hours/day of sunshine, and days of sunshine per year, and incentives; the S&T system typically pays for itself 5.5x faster than PV.

We can demonstrate to buyers that a simply payback of 4-6 years is an excellent ROI, especially when compared to PV.  We will show that when incentives are included simply payback can be reduced to 2-3 years.  The days of 'free' (after incentives) systems have past, there were too few takers, government and utilities closed those opportunity doors.  Real payback based on EBITDA is unique to each potential customer.  We want to convey that number in a clear and concise way. We need only to be able to get then information into the right hands to convince them.

Unique Technology

S&T has developed aspects of the CSP technology by applying sophisticated computer controls to the major subdivisions of the CSP system.

Panel Arrays

The panel arrays boast a simple yet robust tracking mechanism that features a redundant motor that drives up to 12 troughs, and sun sensing for continuous automatic fine tuning.

The panels are configures in a Nx1 configuration all troughs operate in parallel fed by a controlled variable flow & pressure liquid refrigerant line.  Each trough receives a uniform and metered quantity (+/- 1/4%) of fluid from a proprietary S&T flow divider.  The system constantly adjusts the pressure and flow to maintain optimal energy collection for sun and atmospheric conditions and considers time of day.

Prime Mover

The expander/engine is based on a tried and proven radial piston configuration.  S&T has developed an efficient valve mechanism that features infinitely variable valve timing and duration.  The engine boasts near zero piston clearance at TDC for superior volumetric efficiency, and the valve scheme that does not intrude into the cylinder space; valve crashes are impossible because the valve path and the piston path never intersect or overlap.

Flexible Configuration

The engine will come in multiple configurations 4, 6, 8, or 12 cylinders depending on the mechanical power needed.  All configurations occupy the exact same footprint covering a range of power ratings from 50kW to 625kW based on what we call a 250kW platform.  A second smaller variation of the engine designated the 25kW will cover the range from 5kW to 50kW

Large engines based on the radial design have demonstrated decades of reliable service in both aircraft and fixed power installations. Modern CAD software allows S&T to perform advanced design analyses and modifications.

Digital Control

All of the mechanical systems are brought under the single whip of digital control.  Powerful algorithms monitor the inputs and outputs, the ambient conditions, and can anticipate the behavior of the system on a cycle-by-cycle basis as well as day-by-day and annual seasonal variances.  All this data can also be processed into a user-friendly form for marketing and public relations.

Proprietary features

  1. Troughs based on roll formed reflector aluminum, fluoropolymer plastic lens and convection shield, stressed skin construction with/without external ribs.
  2. Metered-flow direct-in-tube boiling using A-106 steel pipe collectors.
  3. Multiple-trough single-axis tracking bi-panels in stadia style construction.
  4. Computer controlled, variable volume & pressure fluid pump.
  5. Infinitely variable hot-gas valve timing, area, and phase.
  6. Superior volumetric efficiency in prime mover (99.5% ~200:1).
  7. Sophisticated software operates prime as a programmable torque source.
  8. Expansion of the vapor into the "synthetic heat-sink" region of the PV curve.
  9. Optimal use of COTS technology.

Plan of Deployment

  1. Build and Demonstrate a full size trough & bi-panel.
  2. Build and Demonstrate a full sized (250kW) engine.
  3. Develop the FADEC software on the full sized hardware which is needed to obtain empirical data.
  4. A 'bench' unit that dumps energy into a brake mush be operated at some nominal fraction of the rated output of a panel array to demonstrate the validity of the various claims.  A small array of 4 bi-panels should be sufficient to drive the engine.  Potential customers have expressed willingness to order units upon seeing a demonstration unit at even this small scale.  Once the bench is built and operated we must construct 2-3 fully independent systems of nominal size to perform UL and other agency testing.  Paralleling these units will serve to demonstrate that we followed manufacturers instructions from the generator OEM and that multiple units of the S&T FADEC work cooperatively.
  5. Scaleable Power Plant Scheme: Because of the vast area of land required to support multi-megawatt systems, the decision to develop the larger 2.5MW engine seems prudent to undertake but only after the 250kW is well developed.  This statement is based on observations and reports spanning decades.


Market Approach for market deployment

As a Green Company S&T will strive to minimize waste.  One major source of waste is transportation of assembled system components over long distances.  The solar panels because of their low weight represent the best opportunity for multiple assembly plants and increased S&T company presence.  Every city, every county, every region, will have a S&T assembly plant that will provide jobs, and serve as a demonstration site for potential customers to come see a working system, just across town.  The facility will serve the installation crews as well.

This approach makes S&T highly scaleable in the business sense.  The capital machinery necessary to support panel production comes in increments of 350MW per year.  Our main facility will produce partially completed troughs and ship the parts to the final assembly plants until the satellite facilities reach a point where they can benefit by having their own machinery.  The machine requires <500 sq ft of floor space.

Economic Advantage

The S&T economic advantage is attributable to the low cost of manufacture of our proprietary devices.  Since electricity is a fungible commodity, we must demonstrate superior value to achieve market success.  Although we are competing in an industry that consists of regulated monopolies, there are regulations that help us and guaranty us certain rights.

Even thought the utilities are regulated there is great uncertainty in the electric markets.  Only one thing is sure; the cost of electricity will continue to rise for the consumer.  Consumers that commit to a S&T genset or a S&T PPA can be assured of the opposite.  Their cost for electricity can be locked in or precisely defined for an arbitrary number of years without regard to international energy politics, and market fluctuations.


S&T projects net positive cash flows of $5.3M based on 50 units of various size sold during the 1st year of production, with that number rising to $17.7M from 120 units in the 2nd year.  The mix of units sold will consist of outright purchases and PPA's that net the company more debt equity and long term profit at the expense of cash flow.

A significant source of revenue are called 'capacity credits' these are fees we will receive based on the anticipated lifetime generation that a certified system is expected to produce over its lifetime.  The incentives for Green systems are in the vicinity of $0.04 to $0.05 per kWhr and are combined with a premium for location $0.005.  These monies are received 6-9 months following the installation & certification of a system and after the 1st year are estimated at $13.1M, rising to $37.8M after the 2nd year

Another major profit center for S&T will be the sale of RECs on the open markets.  The demand for certified renewable energy credits can be expected to grow as fuel prices rise and the environmental movement applies pressure against the burning of coal.  These REC's accrue and increase as the deployed production increases annually. 1st year RECs are estimates at $1.0M rising to $2.7M in the 2nd, and rising as a Fibonacci series with each year of production.  Profits from RECs could exceed those from equipment in the 8th year and capacity in the 9th, and continue for as long as there is environmental pressure to generate Class I renewable energy.


S&T (2)About ... (2.3.1)Principals

Capital Plan

Amount and Sources of Funds -- $10M
S&T Contact - Solar & Thermal

Uses of Capital

  • Physical Plant -- $0.7M
  • Capital Machinery -- $1.8M
  • Personnel & Labor -- $2.5M
  • Inventory & Capital leaseholds -- $1.2M
  • R&D -- $1.4M
  • Operations -- $1.1M
  • Legal, IP, Lic. & Cert. -- $1.1M
  • Cash on hand -- $0.2M
  • S&T Contact - Solar & Thermal



Solar & Thermal has identified multiple key characteristics that will enable us to take maximum advantage of the Renewable Energy space, by providing a superior product at a superior price.  The current political turmoil and the demands to "change the way America uses energy" combined with another wave of rising prices, and the imminent release of ARRA funds including billions of dollars designated to energy programs, will put S&T in an ideal position to create huge returns for investors, and partners.

Contact us to become part of the Solar & Thermal project.

The Light is Green!




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Updated: 09/11/10 19:33